Taurus is among the oldest constellations,  and is a
member of the zodiac.  It contains two very interesting
open clusters,  the Pleiades and the Hyades,  as well
as the Crab Nebula,  the remains of a supernova seen by
the Chinese in 1054.  This consists of a nebula with a
pulsar in the center.

   Telescopium is a La Caille creation,  with no star
brighter than about magnitude 3.5.

Triangulum Australe 
   Triangulum Australe,  the Southern Triangle,  was
formed by Keyzer in the late 1500s.

   Triangulum,  the Triangle,  despite its faintness, is
an ancient constellation.  Its most significant object is
probably M-33,  the Triangulum Galaxy,  which people
with very good eyesight might spot under good conditions
with the unaided eye.

   Tucana,  the Toucan,  is a Keyzer constellation,
originally published in Bayer's 1603 atlas as Toucan,
but since been Latinized into Tucana.  It contains the
Small Magellanic Cloud,  a satellite galaxy orbiting our
own,  and 47 Tucanae,  a bright globular cluster.

Ursa Major 
   Ursa Major,  the Large Bear,  contains the seven stars
known as the Plough,  the Wain,  or the Big Dipper.  It is
probably the best known constellation,  both because of
the easily remembered shape of the Dipper and the fact
that people in the northern hemisphere can almost always
see it.  Also,  the two stars at the front of the Dipper
portion point toward the North Star in Ursa Minor.
   It consists of both the commonly-known seven Big Dipper
stars and a collection of fainter stars making up the head
and feet of the bear.  Aside from pointing toward Polaris,
the Dipper's handle end can be followed in an arc toward
Arcturus in Bootes.  If the two stars pointing toward
Polaris are run through the opposite direction,  they
point toward Regulus in Leo.

Ursa Minor 
   Ursa Minor,  the Small Bear,  is best known for
Polaris,  the current North Star.  Aside from Polaris and
the two stars at the far end of the dipper (Beta and
Gamma),  the constellation is fairly dim.  Polaris is
often found by first locating the Big Dipper in Ursa
Major,  then following the direction of the two stars
in the front of the Dipper.

   Vela,  the Sail,  was once part of the unmanageably
large constellation Argo Navis,  along with Carina (the
Keel) and Puppis (the Stern).  Its most notable object is
Gamma Velorum,  an intensely blue-hot star.

   Virgo,  the Virgin,  is one of the groups in the
zodiac.  It is second only to Hydra in area covered.
   Because Virgo is far from the plane of our own Galaxy,
it is easy to find many external galaxies here.

   Volans,  the Flying Fish,  is best located as an
adjunct to Carina.  It has no star as bright as magnitude

   Vulpecula,  the Little Fox,  is a 1690 creation of
Hevelius.  It lies across the Milky Way and contains the
Dumbbell Nebula (M-27).

"Fast" nova 
   A "fast" nova is a nova that climbs up in brightness
very quickly,  but drops by three magnitudes within 100
days.  An example is GK Per.

"Real slow" nova 
   A "real slow" nova is a nova that takes a longer than
usual time to climb in brightness,  then stays bright for
up to a decade,  then slowly declines.  This is not,  by
the way,  very typical nova behavior;  most of them are
quite transient objects.
   Before an outburst these objects may show long-period
light changes of up to 1 to 2 magnitudes.  These objects
may be planetary nebulae in the process of formation.

"Slow" nova 
   A "slow" nova is a nova that takes more than 150 days
to fade by three magnitudes from its peak brightness.

Go to Alt/Az 
   The Go To Alt/Az option can be reached from the Go to
coordinate submenu,  inside the Go To menu;  or by clicking on
the alt/az displayed in the legend,  or by hitting the & hotkey.
   In any of these cases,  you get a small dialog box asking you
to enter a position in altitude/azimuth coordinates.  Do so,
and Guide will then recenter on that point.

3K background 
   One of the predictions made by the Big Bang theory was
that,  no matter in what direction one looks,  one should
see emissions from a 3-degree Kelvin "background".  This
would appear as a faint microwave emission coming from all
directions,  and indeed,  this emission was detected in
the 1960s.  One can measure the velocity of a galaxy
relative to this background,  and it's one reference frame
used in expressing galaxy RVs in some galaxy catalogs.

   By default,  Guide shows the current position of the
mouse in the legend,  and continually updates this as the
mouse is moved.  (When the mouse is in the menu area,  it
switches to showing the position of the chart's center.)
   This is generally a good thing,  but on slower computers,
one may want to toggle the continuous updating.  One can
do so by hitting the < hotkey.

   Use this dialog box to enter a new screen center in
altitude and azimuth.  Enter these values in
degrees,  click "OK",  and Guide will recenter the
chart at that position.
   You can reach this dialog box by hitting F6,  or by
clicking on the alt/az shown in the legend.

   When printing to a serial (COM) port,  Guide needs to
know the printer's baud rate,  the rate at which it can
accept data.  If you don't know the printer's baud rate,
try a low rate first,  then work your way up.  (A higher
rate means a faster printout.)
   If you decide you don't want to reset the baud rate
after all,  you can hit Cancel.

   Select one of the Bayer (Greek-letter) or Flamsteed-numbered
stars in the list,  and Guide will recenter the chart on that star.

CCD Frame dialog 
   This dialog provides control over the display of a CCD frame on
the chart.  One can reset the focal length and identity of the CCD,
or spin it left or right.  Also,  one can toggle the frame to be
"locked to center".  If the frame is "locked to center",  then it
will stay in the center of the chart,  no matter where you zoom or
pan to.  This is sometimes useful,  but it is usually preferable to
place the frame over a target area and leave it there.
   Also,  you can move your cursor to a place on the chart and
hit Ctrl-F8.  Guide will automatically recenter the CCD frame on
that location.

   Click on one of the colored buttons to choose a new color for
the overlay object on which you just clicked.

   Click on one of the colored buttons to choose a new color.

Set Colors menu 
   This dialog provides control over the colors used for
assorted objects displayed in Guide.  Click on one of the
colored boxes shown,  and you'll be given a list of the colors
available for the object.  If you select one,  that object will
be redrawn in that color.

Colors Menu 
   The Colors Menu allows you to choose the colors in
which various objects and markings are drawn in Guide.
When you choose an entry in this menu,  you are provided
with a list of colors.  Choose one,  and that entry will
subsequently be drawn in the color you have chosen.
   You can reach this menu at any point with the F9

   This dialog provides the angular distance and position angle
between the two points on which you clicked.

   Enter a new value for the year here,  or hit Cancel.

   Enter a new value for the hour here,  or hit Cancel.
   It is sometimes useful to know that one can change
just the hour here,  or the hour and minute,  or the
hour,  minute and second;  for example,

12       resets the hour to 12;
12:22    resets the hour and minute;
12:22:57 resets the hour,  minute and second.

   Enter a new value for the minute here,  or hit Cancel.
   It is sometimes useful to know that one can change just
the minute here,  or the minute and second;  for example,

23       resets the minute;
23:44    resets the minute and second.

   Enter a new value for the second here,  or hit Cancel.

   Enter here the number of steps you want to use to add a
trail or for making an ephemeris.

   Enter the text to be added to the overlay;  or hit Cancel
if you decide you don't really want to add some text.

create new overlay 
   Use this menu option to create and edit a new overlay.
When you click here,  you'll be prompted to enter the name
of the new overlay.  This can be up to 20 characters long.
If you type this and hit "enter",  a new overlay by that
name will be created,  will become the current overlay
(the one listed at the top of the overlay menu),  and can
be edited.

   You can adjust the zoom levels at which an overlay
is shown by clicking on these two lines.  Usually,  you
will not want an overlay to appear at all levels;  using
this feature,  you can constrain it to appear only within
a range of fields of view.
   When you click on either the "High Range" or "Low
Range" options,  you'll be prompted to enter a new value
in degrees.   (You can add a ' to the value to indicate
arcminutes,  or a " to indicate arcseconds.)  The
currently selected overlay (the one listed at the top of
the overlay menu) will then only be shown between those

   Click on one of the planets (or satellites,  or the Sun)
listed shown in this dialog box,  and Guide will recenter
the chart on that object.

Data setting dialog 
   The Data Setting dialog provides controls for setting the
way in which a particular class of object is displayed.  The
class of object can be shown as "on" (_all_ objects are shown,
no matter what their magnitude);  or as "auto",  in which
case objects dimmer than the limiting magnitude are not shown.
   Also,  you can use this dialog to turn labels for the class
of objects on or off.  For asteroids,  this dialog box also
provides controls to set how the labelling is done (by number,
name,  or preliminary designation).  For clusters of
galaxies, the dialog box lets you determine if objects are
drawn from the Abell catalog,  Zwicky catalog,  or both.

home planet dialog 
home planet 
Set Home Planet 
   By default,  this program shows you the sky as it would
look from Earth.  However,  it is always possible that you
may wish to see the sky as it looks from,  say,  Pluto.
To do this,  you would reset your home planet in the
Set Location dialog.
   Because they are so far away,  the stars will look about as
they do from Earth,  but the Solar System objects will be in
totally different places.
   Alternatively,  you can use the home planet dialog,
available by hitting either Ctrl-H,  or Backspace.
This dialog shows the Solar System objects that this
program knows about. Click on one,  and it will be
adopted as your new home planet.

Horizon dialog 
Go to Horizon 
   You can use the controls provided by the Horizon dialog
box to find points along the horizon,  or to find the
zenith or nadir.  Click on any of those buttons,  and
Guide will recenter the chart accordingly.
   You can reach this dialog box with the Alt-W hotkey.

legend dialog 
   The legend dialog provides control over what is shown in
Guide's legend area (the lower left corner of the chart).
By default,  the RA and declination;  epoch;  time;
latitude and longitude;  and field of view and zoom level
are all shown.  Also,  a "compass" symbol shows the current
chart orientation;  a magnitude key shows the relationship
between dot size and stellar magnitude;  and an object key
tells you what the various chart symbols mean.
   Using this dialog,  you can toggle these, as well as the
display of the current altitude/azimuth; Uranometria
page;  Sky Atlas 2000 page;  and the display of a caption.
Once you have turned the caption on,  you can add lines of
text to it,  or clear it.

Go to Comet 
   This dialog box lists the comets that are currently
bright enough to show up on the charts.  Click on one,  and
Guide will recenter on it.
   Keep in mind that if the display of comets is shut off,
then the comet won't show up,  even after Guide recenters
on it.  Also,  the number of comets shown depends on the
current limiting magnitude you have set for comets.
   You can reach this dialog from the Go to Comet menu
option in the Go To menu,  or with the Alt-K hotkey.

   This dialog box lists the many catalogs used to list double
stars.  Click on one,  and you'll be asked to enter the
number of a star in that catalog;  do so,  and Guide will
recenter the chart on that double star.

   This dialog box lists the many catalogs used to list open
clusters.  Click on one,  and you'll be asked to enter the
number of a cluster in that catalog;  do so,  and Guide will
recenter the chart on that cluster.

   This dialog box lets one find a bright star using its Bayer
(Greek-letter) designation,  such as Beta Centauri or Zeta
Herculi,  or its Flamsteed number,  such as 61 Cygni.
   First,  it lists the 88 constellations;  select one,  and
it will list the Bayer and Flamsteed objects in that constellation.
Select one,  and Guide will recenter the chart on that star.

   This option leads to a menu showing all the overlays
Guide knows about.  Click on one,  and it will become
the "current" overlay,  and you can reset the levels at
which it is shown,  and you can add objects to it if
   The current overlay is always listed as the top menu
item in the overlay menu.
   This option is used to choose from _existing_ overlays.
If,  instead,  you would like to create a _new_ overlay,
use the create new overlay option instead.

   This option leads to a menu showing all the overlays
Guide knows about.  You can select an overlay that you
wish to delete;  Guide will prompt you to make sure of
your choice,  to avoid accidental deletions.

measurements dialog 
   The measurements dialog box provides control over the
display of ticks,  grids,  RA/declination "side labels",
and hatches,  as well as of the ecliptic,  horizon,
galactic equator,  Telrad,  aperture circle,  a cross-hair
at the center of the chart,  and the border.
   When you turn any of the first four on,  you'll be
given the opportunity in the Spacing Dialog to reset the
spacing interval for that marking.  Normally,  you won't
want do this,  but if you do,  control is provided.  The
remaining items result in a standard data display dialog.
   You can reach this option with the Ctrl-T hotkey.

   This menu lists all 103 Messier objects,  by number
and,  in some cases,  by a commonly used name (like the
Pleiades,  the Wild Duck,  and so on).  Picking one will
cause Guide to recenter on that object.

Object Pick dialog 
   When you click with the left mouse button on an object
in Guide,  the Object Pick dialog will appear.  This
box lists some basic data about the object,  such as its
name(s),  catalog number(s),  rise,  set,  and transit
times,  and altitude and azimuth.
   For most objects,  a "More Info" button is provided.
Click on this,  and Guide will cross-reference available
catalogs to show you everything it knows about that object.
   The "Next" button is intended to evade the problem of
selecting objects in crowded fields.  Click on it,  and
Guide will select the next-closest object.  In really crowded
areas,  you may have to use "Next" several times before
getting the object you really wanted.
   This dialog will almost always include a "Display" button,
too.  Clicking on it will lead to a data display dialog for
that class of object.

   Enter the catalog number of an open cluster,  and
Guide will recenter the chart on it.

Overlay Pick dialog 
   When you click with the left mouse button on an overlay
object in Guide,  the Overlay Pick dialog will appear.
This dialog will give you the opportunity to delete the
object or select a new color for it.
   Alternatively,  of course,  you can simply click "OK"
and not alter the object at all.

   When printing to a serial (COM) port,  Guide needs to
know the parity setting.  This can be either N(one),
(E)ven,  or (O)dd.  Usually,  it's None,  and if you
aren't sure how to answer this question and can't find
an answer in a manual,  try None.
   If you decide you don't want to reset the parity
after all,  you can hit Cancel.

   The Enter RA/dec dialog box lets you enter a new screen
center in RA and declination.  You can also change the
epoch from the default of J2000;  if you do,  that new
epoch will become the new default throughout Guide.
   You can reach this dialog box either by clicking on the
RA and declination shown in the legend;  or by using the menu
items "Go to" and "Enter RA/Dec".
   By default,  the RA is shown in hours,  minutes,  and
decimal seconds;  the declination,  in degrees,  minutes,  and
seconds.  If you enter a value in a different format (such as
hours and decimal minutes,  or decimal degrees),  that format
will become the new default throughout Guide.

scope control dialog 
scope control 
   The scope control dialog box provides all control
needed to set up an LX-200, Sky Commander,  or similar
telescope system.
   The first step is to identify the communications port (COM1
through COM4) to which the scope is attached.  If you don't
select one,  then Guide will assume that no scope is
attached,  and the scope system controls will be grayed out.
   For encoders of the JMI/MG-III type,  you'll also have to
specify the encoder resolution.
   Once you have selected a port and scope system and clicked on
"OK",  then suitable commands will be added to the menu bar. Almost
always,  this means that the Scope Pad command will appear.
   You can reach this menu at any time with the F4 hotkey.

orbital elements dialog 
   Click on an object in this list,  and Guide will show
its orbital elements.  You can then change them,  along
with its name and magnitude parameters.
   You'll notice that this list includes "(new asteroid)"
and "(new comet)" options.  Usually,  elements for
comets are given in a slightly different form than those
for asteroids.  Also,  of course,  comets are displayed
differently in Guide.
   You can reach this option with the Ctrl-K hotkey;
or by right-clicking on an asteroid or comet,  selecting
"Display",  then clicking on "Options".

   If you've clicked on an overlay object and clicked on
the "color" button in the overlay pick dialog,  you will
be presented with this dialog box of possible colors for
that overlay object.  By default,  any overlay object you
add (lines,  text, circles) will be drawn in white.

   Click on any of the buttons to reset your current zoom
level.  You can reach this dialog box by clicking on the
zoom level and field size shown in the legend.
   You can also reset your zoom level by hitting the numbers
1 through 9 (to get levels 1-9);  0 (to get level 10);  and
Alt-1 through 9 (levels 11-19).
   You can access this option at any time with the ) key.

spacing dialog 
   The Spacing Dialog contains controls for setting the
RA and declination intervals for grids,  hatches,  side
labels,  and ticks.
   The top item,  "Automatic Spacing",  is usually left
on. If it is,  then Guide will automatically readjust
the spacing used as you zoom in and out to keep it as
close as possible to what you already have set.  So if you
select a dense spacing of perhaps ten grid lines across
the chart,  Guide will always select a spacing resulting in
about ten grid lines,  no matter what field of view you choose.
   If you want to fix the spacing,  then click on the
assorted spacings shown to set the RA and declination
spacings separately.  When you do this,  "Automatic
Spacing" will be turned off.
   Also,  one can reset the epoch used for the marking.
This can be useful if you want to show,  for example,
J2000 grids along with B1950 ticks,  as is done on
some charts.

star display dialog 
   You can control the sizes,  labelling,  and magnitude
limits of stars with the star display dialog.  The top
two items toggle the coloring of stars by spectral type
and the outlining of stars (to ensure that dim stars can
be seen on top of brighter stars).
   The next three lines allow one considerable control
over the sizes used to draw stars.  One can set the
maximum and minimum radius of a star,  and can also set
the "mag range".  This value defaults to 10,  meaning that
if the dimmest stars shown are of magnitude 14.7,  then
stars of magnitude 4.7 or brighter will be shown at the
maximum star size.
   Following this is a series of switches controlling
how stars are labelled.  By default,  Guide will label
stars with Greek-letter (Bayer) and numerical Flamsteed
designations most of the time,  and does not label stars
by SAO,  PPM,  Yale,  HIP (Hipparcos),  HD,  or
GSC numbers, or by their common names.
   The next item,  "Mag labels",  allows one to have stars
labelled by their magnitude,  down to any desired limit.
By default,  this is zero (no labels are shown);  enter a
value of,  for example,  9.5,  and all stars brighter than
that limit will be labelled with their magnitude.
   The "PM vector (years)" option was inspired by a feature in
the Millennium Star Atlas.  In that atlas,  stars with high
proper motion have an arrow attached to them,  indicating the
distance and direction of their movement over 1000 years.  That
length is not always suitable in Guide,  so the length in years
can be set in the edit box.  It defaults to 0 (no arrows at all).
   The final item toggles the display of non-stars from
the GSC.
   You can reach this by clicking on the star sizes shown
in the legend;  or by hitting '#';  or through the display